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管理信息系统外文教材

2017-08-03 00:00:00  校园生活网  本文已影响   字号:T|T

篇一:管理信息系统外文教材

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篇二:管理信息系统外文教材

IP A R TInformation Systems in the Digital Age1 Business Information Systems in YourCareer2 E-Business: How Businesses UseInformation Systems3 Achieving Competitive Advantagewith Information SystemsPart I introduces the major themes and the problem-solvingapproaches that are used throughout the book. While surveying therole of information systems in today s businesses, this part raisesseveral major questions: What is an information system? Why areinformation systems so essential in businesses today? How caninformation systems help businesses become more competitive?What do I need to know about information systems to succeed inmy business career?Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:54 PM Page 1S T U D E N T L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E SAfter completing this chapter, you will be able to answer the following questions:1. How are information systems transforming business and whatis their relationship to globalization? 2. Why are information systems so essential for running andmanaging a business today?3. What exactly is an information system? How does it work?What are its people, organization, and technologycomponents? 4. How will a four-step method for business problem solving helpyou solve information system-related problems?5. How will information systems affect business careers and whatinformation systems skills and knowledge are essential?Business InformationSystems in Your Career1C H A P T E R2Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:54 PM Page 23CHAPTER OUTLINEChapter-Opening Case: NBA Teams Make a Slam Dunk with Information Technology1.1 The Role of Information Systems in Business Today1.2 Perspectives on Information Systems andInformation Technology1.3 Understanding Information Systems: A BusinessProblem-Solving Approach1.4 Information Systems and Your Career1.5 Hands-On MISBusiness Problem-Solving Case: Is Second LifeReady for Business?N NB BA A T TE EA AM MS S M MA AK KE E A A S SL LA AM M D DU UN NK K W WI IT TH H I IN NF FO OR RM MA AT TI IO ON N T TE EC CH HN NO OL LO OG GY YBasketball is a very fast-paced, high-energy sport but it s also big business.Professional teams that belong to the National Basketball Association (NBA) pay each oftheir players an average of $5 million each year. For that amount of money, member teams expect a great deal and are constantly on the watch for ways of improving theirperformance. During an 82-game season, every nuance a coach can pick up about a weak-ness in an opponent s offense or in the jump shot of one of his own players will translateinto more points on the scoreboard, more wins, and ultimately more money for the team.Traditional basketball game statistics failed to capture all of the details associatedwith every play and were not easily related to videotapes of games. As a result,decisions about changes in tactics or how to take advantage of opponents weaknesseswere based primarily on hunches and gut instincts. Coaches could not easily answerquestions such as Which types of plays are hurting us? Now professional basketballcoaches and managers are taking their cues from other businesses and learning how tomake decisions based on hard data.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:57 PM Page 34Part I: Information Systems in the Digital AgeA company called Synergy Sports Technology has found a way to collect and organizefine-grained statistical data and relate the data to associated video clips. Synergy employsmore than 30 people to match up videos of each play with statistical information on whichplayers have the ball, what type of play is involved, and the result. Each game is dissectedand tagged, play by play, using hundreds of descriptive categories and these data are linkedto high-resolution video.Coaches then use an index to locate the exact video clip in which they are interested andaccess the video at a protected Web site. Within seconds they are able to watch streamingvideo on the protected site or they can download it to laptops and even to Apple iPods. OneNBA team puchased iPods for every player so they could review videos to help them pre-pare for their next game. For example, if the Dallas Mavericks have just lost to the Phoenix Suns and gave up toomany fast-break points, Mavericks coaches can use Synergy s service to see video clips ofevery Phoenix fast break in the game. They can also view every Dallas transitional situationfor the entire season to see how that night s game compared with others. According to DallasMavericks owner Mark Cuban, The system allows us to look at every play, in every way,and tie it back to stats. So we can watch how we played every pick and roll, track our successrate, and see how other teams are doing it. The service helps coaches analyze the strengths and weaknesses of individual players.For example, Synergy s system has recorded every offensive step of the Mavericks DirkNowitzki since he joined the NBA in 1998. The system can show how successfully he is dri-ving right or left in either home or away games, with the ability to break games and playerperformance into increasingly finer-grained categories. If a user clicks on any statistic, thatperson will find video clips from the last three seasons of 20, 50, or even 2,000 plays thatshow Nowitzki making that particular move.About 14 NBA teams have already signed up for Synergy s service and are using it tohelp them scout for promising high school and international players. Although nothing willever replace the need to scout players in person, the service has reduced NBA teams sky-rocketing travel costs.Sources: Randall Stross, Technology to Dissect Every Dunk and Drive, The New York Times, April 29, 2007; Bob Young, Nothing but Net: NBA Stats Come to Life Online, The Arizona Republic, April 17, 2006; wkyc.com,accessed May 4, 2007; and www.nba.org, accessed May 4, 2007.The challenges facing NBA teams show why information systems are so essential today.Like other businesses, professional basketball faces pressures from high costs, especially forteam member salaries and travel to search for new talent. Teams are trying to increaserevenue by improving employee performance, especially the performance of basketballteam members.The chapter-opening diagram calls attention to important points raised by this case andthis chapter. To improve team performance, NBA coaches could have spent more time scru-tinizing existing videos of their games, or management could have paid more money torecruit the most highly-ranked NBA players. They chose instead a new information systemsolution that provides them with better information to take advantage of their existing playerresources. The solution is based on an information system service provided by Synergy SportsTechnology. Synergy staff members break down each game into a series of plays and thencategorize each play by players, type of play, and the outcome. These data are tagged tothe videos they describe to make the videos easy to search. NBA coaches andmanagement can analyze the data to see which offensive and defensive moves are themost effective for each team player. Team members themselves can use iPods to downloadthe videos to help them prepare for games. This innovative solution makes it possible forbasketball management to use hard statistical data about players, plays, and outcomes toimprove their decision making about what players should or shouldn t do to mosteffectively counter their opponents.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:57 PM Page 4Chapter 1: Business Information Systems in Your Career5HEADS UPThis chapter introduces you to the roles that information systems and technologies playin business firms. All firms today, large and small, local, national, and global, use infor-mation systems to achieve important business objectives, such as operational effi-ciency, customer and supplier intimacy, better decision making, and new products andservices. Information systems and technologies will also play large roles in your career:You will need to know how to use information systems and technologies to help yourfirm solve problems and overcome challenges. 1.1 The Role of Information Systems in Business Today It s not business as usual in America any more, or the rest of the global economy. In 2007,American businesses will invest nearly $1 trillion in information systems hardware,software, and telecommunications equipment more than half of all capital investment inthe United States. In addition, they will spend another $250 billion on business and manage-ment consulting and services much of which involves redesigning firms business opera-tions to take advantage of these new technologies. More than half of all business investmentin the United States each year involves information systems and technologies.HOW INFORMATION SYSTEMS ARE TRANSFORMING BUSINESSYou can see the results of this massive spending around you every day by observing howpeople conduct business. More wireless cell phone accounts were opened in 2007 thantelephone land lines installed. Cell phones, BlackBerrys, wireless handhelds, e-mail, andonline conferencing over the Internet have all become essential tools of business. In 2007,more than 40 million businesses had dot-com Internet sites registered. Six million Ameri-cans purchase something every day on the Internet, 19 million research a product, and 38million use a search engine. What this means is that if you and your business aren tEss8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:57 PM Page 56Part I: Information Systems in the Digital Ageconnected to the Internet and wireless networks, chances are you are not being as effectiveas you could be (Pew Internet and American Life, 2007). In 2006, FedEx moved in the United States nearly 200 million packages, mostlyovernight, and the United Parcel Service (UPS) moved more than 570 million packages, asbusinesses sought to sense and respond to rapidly changing customer demand, reduceinventories to the lowest possible levels, and achieve higher levels of operational efficiency.Supply chains have become more fast paced, with companies of all sizes depending on thedelivery of just-in-time inventory to help them compete. Companies today manage theirinventories in near real time in order to reduce their overhead costs and get to market faster.If you are not a part of this new supply chain management economy, chances are yourbusiness is not as efficient as it could be.As newspaper readership continues to decline, 94 million people read at least some oftheir news online. Sixty million bank online, and 55 million now read blogs, creating anexplosion of new writers, readers, and new forms of customer feedback that did not existbefore. This means your customers are empowered and talk to each other about your busi-ness products and services. Do you have a solid online customer relationship program inplace? Is your marketing department listening? E-commerce and Internet advertising are booming: Google s online ad revenuessurpassed $10 billion in 2006. Internet advertising continues to grow at more than 15percent a year, at the expense of traditional media, reaching more than $18 billion inrevenues in 2007. Is your advertising department reaching this new Web-based customerbase? New federal security and accounting laws require many businesses to keep e-mailmessages for five years. Coupled with existing occupational and health laws requiring firmsto store employee chemical exposure data for up to 60 years, these laws are spurring thegrowth of digital information now estimated to be 5 exabytes, equivalent to 37,000 Librariesof Congress. Does your compliance department meet the minimal requirements for storingfinancial, health, and occupational information? If they don t, your entire business may be atrisk. Briefly, it s a new world of doing business, one that will greatly affect your futurebusiness career. Along with the changes in business come changes in jobs and careers. No matter whether you are a finance, accounting, management, marketing, operationsmanagement, or information systems major, how you work, where you work, and howwell you are compensated will all be affected by business information systems. The purpose of this book is to help you understand and benefit from these new businessrealities. GLOBALIZATION CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES: AFLATTENED WORLD In 1492, Columbus reaffirmed what astronomers were long saying: the world was round andthe seas could be safely sailed. As it turned out, the world was populated by peoples andlanguages living in near total isolation from one another, with great disparities in economicand scientific development. The world trade that ensued after Columbus s voyages hasbrought these peoples and cultures closer. The industrial revolution was really a world-wide phenomenon energized by expansion of trade among nations. By 2005, journalist Thomas Friedman wrote an influential book declaring the world wasnow flat, by which he meant that the Internet and global communications had greatlyreduced the economic and cultural advantages of developed countries. U.S. and Europeancountries were in a fight for their economic lives, competing for jobs, markets, resources,and even ideas with highly educated, motivated populations in low-wage areas in the lessdeveloped world (Friedman, 2005). This globalization presents you and your businesswith both challenges and opportunities. A growing percentage of the economy of the United States and other advanced industrialcountries in Europe and Asia depends on imports and exports. In 2007, more than 33 percentEss8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:57 PM Page 6Chapter 1: Business Information Systems in Your Career7of the U.S. economy resulted from foreign trade, both imports and exports. In Europe andAsia, the number exceeds 50 percent. Many Fortune 500 U.S. firms derive half their rev-enues from foreign operations. For instance, more than half of Intel s revenues in 2006 camefrom overseas sales of its microprocessors. Toys for chips: 80 percent of the toys sold in theUnited States are manufactured in China, while about 90 percent of the PCs manufactured inChina use American-made Intel or Advanced Micro Design (AMD) chips. It s not just goods that move across borders. So too do jobs, some of them high-leveljobs that pay well and require a college degree. In the past decade the U.S. lost several mil-lion manufacturing jobs to offshore, low-wage producers. But manufacturing is now a verysmall part of U.S. employment (less than 12 percent). In a normal year, about 300,000 ser-vice jobs move offshore to lower-wage countries, many of them in less-skilled informationsystem occupations, but also including tradable service jobs in architecture, financial ser-vices, customer call centers, consulting, engineering, and even radiology. On the plus side, the U.S. economy creates over 3.5 million new jobs a year, andemployment in information systems, and the other service occupations listed previously, hasexpanded in sheer numbers, wages, productivity, and quality of work. Outsourcing hasactually accelerated the development of new systems in the United States and worldwide.For the last several years there have been too few information systems majors to fill thedemand of employers in the United States. The challenge for you as a business student is to develop high-level skills througheducation and on-the-job experience that cannot be outsourced. The challenge for yourbusiness is to avoid markets for goods and services that can be produced offshore much lessexpensively. The opportunities are equally immense. You can learn how to profit from thelower costs available in world markets and the chance to serve a marketplace with billions ofcustomers. You have the opportunity to develop higher-level and more profitable productsand services. You will find throughout this book examples of companies and individualswho either failed or succeeded in using information systems to adapt to this new globalenvironment. What does globalization have to do with management information systems? That ssimple: everything. The emergence of the Internet into a full-blown international communi-cations system has drastically reduced the costs of operating and transacting on a globalscale. Communication between a factory floor in Shanghai and a distribution center inRapid Falls, South Dakota, is now instant and virtually free. Customers now can shop in aworldwide marketplace, obtaining price and quality information reliably 24 hours a day.Firms producing goods and services on a global scale achieve extraordinary cost reductionsby finding low-cost suppliers and managing production facilities in other countries. Internetservice firms, such as Google and eBay, are able to replicate their business models andservices in multiple countries without having to redesign their expensive fixed-cost informa-tion systems infrastructure. Over half of eBay s revenues in 2007 originated outside theUnited States. Briefly, information systems enable globalization.BUSINESS DRIVERS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMSWhat makes information systems so essential today? Why are businesses investing so muchin information systems and technologies? They do so to achieve six important businessobjectives: operational excellence; new products, services, and business models; customerand supplier intimacy; improved decision making; competitive advantage; and survival.Operational ExcellenceBusinesses continuously seek to improve the efficiency of their operations in order toachieve higher profitability. Information systems and technologies are some of the mostimportant tools available to managers for achieving higher levels of efficiency and produc-tivity in business operations, especially when coupled with changes in business practicesand management behavior.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:57 PM Page 78Part I: Information Systems in the Digital AgeWal-Mart, the largest retailer on Earth, exemplifies the power of information systemscoupled with brilliant business practices and supportive management to achieve world-classoperational efficiency. In 2007, Wal-Mart achieved more than $348 billion in sales nearlyone-tenth of retail sales in the United States in large part because of its Retail Link system,which digitally links its suppliers to every o

管理信息系统外文教材

ne of Wal-Mart s 5,289 stores worldwide. As soon as a customer purchases an item, the supplier monitoring the item knows to ship areplacement to the shelf. Wal-Mart is the most efficient retail store in the industry, achievingsales of more than $28 per square foot, compared to its closest competitor, Target, at $23 asquare foot, with other retail firms producing less than $12 a square foot. New Products, Services, and Business ModelsInformation systems and technologies are a major enabling tool for firms to create newproducts and services, as well as entirely new business models. A business model describeshow a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth. Today smusic industry is vastly different from the industry in 2000. Apple Inc. transformed an oldbusiness model of music distribution based on vinyl records, tapes, and CDs into an online,legal distribution model based on its own iPod technology platform. Apple has prosperedfrom a continuing stream of innovations, including the original iPod, the iPod nano, theiTunes music service, the iPod video player, and the iPhone.Customer and Supplier IntimacyWhen a business really knows its customers and serves them well, the way they want to beserved, the customers generally respond by returning and purchasing more. This raisesrevenues and profits. Likewise with suppliers: the more a business engages its suppliers, thebetter the suppliers can provide vital inputs. This lowers costs. How to really know yourcustomers, or suppliers, is a central problem for businesses with millions of offline andonline customers. The Mandarin Oriental in Manhattan and other high-end hotels exemplify the use ofinformation systems and technologies to achieve customer intimacy. These hotels usecomputers to keep track of guests preferences, such as their preferred room temperature,check-in time, frequently dialed telephone numbers, and television programs, and storethese data in a giant data repository. Individual rooms in the hotels are networked to acentral network server computer so that they can be remotely monitored or controlled. Whena customer arrives at one of these hotels, the system automatically changes the roomconditions, such as dimming the lights, setting the room temperature, or selecting appropri-With its stunning multi-touch display, fullInternet browsing, digitalcamera, and portablemusic player, Apple siPhone set a newstandard for mobilephones. Other Appleproducts have trans-formed the music andentertainment industries.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:58 PM Page 8Chapter 1: Business Information Systems in Your Career9Information Builders digital dashboard deliv-ers comprehensive andaccurate information fordecision making. Thegraphical overview of keyperformance indicatorshelps managers quicklyspot areas that needattention.ate music, based on the customer s digital profile. The hotels also analyze their customerdata to identify their best customers and to develop individualized marketing campaignsbased on customers preferences.JCPenney exemplifies the benefits of information systems-enabled supplier intimacy.Every time a dress shirt is bought at a JCPenney store in the United States, the record of thesale appears immediately on computers in Hong Kong at the TAL Apparel Ltd. supplier, agiant contract manufacturer that produces one in eight dress shirts sold in the United States.TAL runs the numbers through a computer model it developed and then decides how manyreplacement shirts to make, and in what styles, colors and sizes. TAL then sends the shirts toeach JCPenney store, bypassing completely the retailer s warehouses. In other words,JCPenney s shirt inventory is near zero, as is the cost of storing it.Improved Decision MakingMany business managers operate in an information fog bank, never really having the rightinformation at the right time to make an informed decision. Instead, managers rely onforecasts, best guesses, and luck. The result is over- or underproduction of goods andservices, misallocation of resources, and poor response times. These poor outcomes raisecosts and lose customers. In the past 10 years, information systems and technologies havemade it possible for managers to use real-time data from the marketplace when makingdecisions. For instance, Verizon Corporation, one of the largest regional Bell operating companiesin the United States, uses a Web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with precisereal-time information on customer complaints, network performance for each localityserved, and line outages or storm-damaged lines. Using this information, managers canimmediately allocate repair resources to affected areas, inform consumers of repair efforts,and restore service fast. Competitive AdvantageWhen firms achieve one or more of these business objectives operational excellence; newproducts, services, and business models; customer/supplier intimacy; and improved decisionmaking chances are they have already achieved a competitive advantage. Doing thingsbetter than your competitors, charging less for superior products, and responding tocustomers and suppliers in real time all add up to higher sales and higher profits that yourcompetitors cannot match.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 12:59 PM Page 910Part I: Information Systems in the Digital AgeIn a Toyota factory, theassembly line produces asuperior product in lesstime, using less inven-tory, and having fewerdefects than the competi-tion. Toyota uses infor-mation systems to moni-tor inventory levels andmanage productionscheduling.Perhaps no other company exemplifies all of these attributes leading to competitive advan-tage more than Toyota Motor Company, which we discuss in the following chapter. Toyotahas become the world s largest auto maker because of its high level of efficiency and qual-ity. Competitors struggle to keep up. Toyota s legendary Toyota Production System (TPS)focuses on organizing work to eliminate waste, making continuous improvements, and opti-mizing customer value. Information systems help Toyota implement the TPS and producevehicles based on what customers have actually ordered. SurvivalBusiness firms also invest in information systems and technologies because they are neces-sities of doing business. Sometimes these necessities are driven by industry-level changes.For instance, after Citibank introduced the first automatic teller machines (ATMs) in theNew York region in 1977 to attract customers through higher service levels, its competitorsrushed to provide ATMs to their customers to keep up with Citibank. Today, virtually allbanks in the United States have regional ATMs and link to national and international ATMnetworks, such as CIRRUS. Providing ATM services to retail banking customers is simply arequirement of being in and surviving in the retail banking business. Many federal and state statutes and regulations create a legal duty for companies andtheir employees to retain records, including digital records. For instance, the ToxicSubstances Control Act (1976), which regulates the exposure of U.S. workers to morethan 75,000 toxic chemicals, requires firms to retain records on employee exposure for 30years. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002), which was intended to improve the accountabilityof public firms and their auditors, requires public companies to retain audit workingpapers and records, including all e-mails, for five years. Firms turn to information systemsand technologies to provide the capability to respond to these information retention andreporting requirements. 1.2 Perspectives on Information Systems and InformationTechnologySo far we ve used information systems and technologies informally without defining theterms. Information technology (IT) consists of all the hardware and software that a firmneeds to use in order to achieve its business objectives. This includes not only computermachines, disk drives, handheld personal digital assistants, and, yes, even iPods (where theyare used for a business purpose) but also software, such as the Windows or Linux operatingsystems, the Microsoft Office desktop productivity suite, and the many thousands ofEss8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 1:00 PM Page 10Chapter 1: Business Information Systems in Your Career11Figure 1-1Data and InformationRaw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to produce mean-ingful information, such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total sales revenue from dishdetergent for a specific store or sales territory.computer programs that can be found in a typical large firm. Information systems aremore complex and can be best be understood by looking at them from both a technology anda business perspective. WHAT IS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM?An information system (IS) can be defined technically as a set of interrelated componentsthat collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision mak-ing and control in an organization. In addition to supporting decision making, coordination,and control, information systems may also help managers and workers analyze problems,visualize complex subjects, and create new products.Information systems contain information about significant people, places, and thingswithin the organization or in the environment surrounding it. By information we mean datathat have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings. Data, incontrast, are streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or thephysical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that peoplecan understand and use.A brief example contrasting information and data may prove useful. Supermarketcheckout counters scan millions of pieces of data, such as bar codes, that describe theproduct. Such pieces of data can be totaled and analyzed to provide meaningful information,such as the total number of bottles of dish detergent sold at a particular store, which brandsof dish detergent were selling the most rapidly at that store or sales territory, or the totalamount spent on that brand of dish detergent at that store or sales region (see Figure 1-1). Three activities in an information system produce the information that organizationsneed to make decisions, control operations, analyze problems, and create new products orservices. These activities are input, processing, and output (see Figure 1-2). Input capturesor collects raw data from within the organization or from its external environment.Processing converts this raw input into a meaningful form. Output transfers the processedinformation to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 1:00 PM Page 1112Part I: Information Systems in the Digital AgeInformation systems also require feedback, which is output that is returned to appropriatemembers of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage.In the NBA teams system for analyzing basketball moves, there are actually two typesof raw input. One consists of all the statistics about each play entered by Synergy SportsTechnology s staff members the player s name, team, date of game, game location, type ofplay, other players involved in the play, and the outcome. The other input consists of videosof the plays and games, which are captured as digital points of data for storage, retrieval, andmanipulation by the computer. Synergy Sports Technology server computers store these data and process them to relatedata such as the player s name(s), type of play, and outcome to a specific video clip. The out-put consists of videos and statistics about specific players, teams, and plays. The system pro-vides meaningful information, such as the number and type of defensive plays that were suc-cessful against a specific player, what types of offensive plays were the most successfulagainst a specific team, or comparisons of individual player and team performance in homeand away games. Although computer-based information systems use computer technology to process rawdata into meaningful information, there is a sharp distinction between a computer and acomputer program and an information system. Electronic computers and related softwareprograms are the technical foundation, the tools and materials, of modern informationsystems. Computers provide the equipment for storing and processing information.Computer programs, or software, are sets of operating instructions that direct and controlcomputer processing. Knowing how computers and computer programs work is importantin designing solutions to organizational problems, but computers are only part of aninformation system. A house is an appropriate analogy. Houses are built with hammers, nails, and wood, butthese do not make a house. The architecture, design, setting, landscaping, and all of thedecisions that lead to the creation of these features are part of the house and are crucial forsolving the problem of putting a roof over one s head. Computers and programs are thehammer, nails, and lumber of computer-based information systems, but alone they cannotproduce the information a particular organization needs. To understand informationFigure 1-2Functions of anInformation System An information systemcontains informationabout an organizationand its surroundingenvironment. Three basicactivities input, pro-cessing, and output produce the informationorganizations need.Feedback is outputreturned to appropriatepeople or activities in theorganization to evaluateand refine the input.Environmental actors,such as customers,suppliers, competitors,stockholders, and regula-tory agencies, interactwith the organization andits information systems.Ess8_Ch_01_mmv2.qxd 11/20/2007 1:01 PM Page 12Chapter 1: Business Information Systems in Your Career13Figure 1-3Information SystemsAre More ThanComputersUsing informationsystems effectivelyrequires an understand-ing of the organization,people, and informationtechnology shaping thesystems. An informationsystem provides a solution to importantbusiness problems orchallenges facing thefirm.systems, you must understand the problems they are designed to solve, their architecturaland design elements, and the organizational processes that lead to these solutions.IT ISN T SIMPLY TECHNOLO GY: THE ROLE OF...

篇三:管理信息系统外文教材

项目 与课曩 S c 科 i e n c e & 技 T e c h 视 n o l o g y 界 V i s i o n 科技 ? 探索 ? 争呜 《 管理信息系统( 外文教材) 》 课程教学改革探讨 张海 涛 姚 罡 张瑞 霞 ( 桂林 电子 科技 大学 计算 机科 学 与工程 学 院 , 广西 桂林 5 4 1 0 0 0) 【 摘 要】 《 管理信 息 系
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